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Arterial Disease Causes and Risk Factors

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Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)

Arterial disease in within the legs. If left untreated, PAD may lead to ulcers, infection (gangrene) or in extreme cases - amputation.

Signs & Symptoms

  • Leg or buttock pain that worsens with activity
  • Discoloration/pain in the toes
  • Diminished pulses
  • Muscle weakness
  • Skin is cool to the touch
  • Ulcers near the toes

Causes & Risk Factors

  • Leg or buttock pain that worsens with activity
  • Discoloration/pain in the toes
  • Diminished pulses
  • Muscle weakness
  • Skin is cool to the touch
  • Ulcers near the toes

Cartoid Artery Disease

The narrowing of the carotid arteries. It is usually caused by the buildup of plaque. If undiagnosed and untreated, Carotid Artery Disease can cause a stroke.

Signs & Symptoms*

  • Sudden blurred or loss of vision
  • Weakness, tingling or numbness on one side of the face and/or body
  • Difficulty walking
  • Slurred speech
  • Confusion

*As plaque builds over time, symptoms may not present themselves until a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or a stroke takes place.

Causes & Risk Factors

  • Ages 55+
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • High cholesterol (poor lipid profile)
  • Tobacco use
  • Sedentary lifestyle

Aneurysm

The enlargement of an artery due to weakness of the vessel wall. The most common aneurysms are in the abdomen and pelvis. Aneurysms can rupture and bleed or cause other symptoms and complications. These complications include, but are not limited to, shock, blood loss, severe pain, blood clots, loss of limb and sudden death.

Signs & Symptoms

  • Sudden pain in the abdomen, back or groin (rupture/bleeding)
  • Shortness of breath, hoarseness, coughing and difficulty swallowing

Causes & Risk Factors

  • Aging
  • High blood pressure
  • Blood clot formation
  • Smoking
  • Family history

Renal Artery Stenosis

The narrowing of arteries, due to plaque buildup, that carry blood to the kidneys, which over time can lead to kidney failure.

Signs & Symptoms

  • Typically, signs of RAS are associated with high blood pressure, including:
  • Hard to control blood pressure
  • Sudden worsening of previously, well-controlled blood pressure
  • Elevated blood pressure that affects other organs

Causes & Risk Factors

  • Aging
  • Being female
  • High blood pressure
  • Smoking

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